The different nodes of CEM4MAT offer courses covering a broad range of topics from the basic understanding to specialised courses in selected material topics. The courses are aimed at both academic (Master’s or PhD level) and industrial users.

Introductory Courses

The course is based on open literature and below listed textbooks where the course participants are demanded very active participation. The course is conducted in a seminar form, with discussion and analysis of how topographic, morphological, compositional and crystallographic information are deduced using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. There will be six demo sessions on the three electron microscopes (TEM, SEM and FIB-SEM) under the supervision of EM experts, to demonstrate the effective use of the techniques for the generation of desired information from a variety of samples.

The course covers the analytical electron microscopy (EM) that can be used in materials chemistry studies, in particular nanomaterials. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) will be introduced. The course provides a description of instrumentation of electron microscope and the fundamental physics of the image formation. It also includes electron diffraction technique in kinematical and dynamical condition as well as image formation based on mass contrast (low resolution), bright- and dark-field imaging, and phase contrast at atomic resolution. In addition, the course covers how to interpret the images or diffraction patterns taken by the above techniques, for example, indexing and identification of the unit cell of crystalline material and theoretical calculations and analysis. The course also introduces various EM preparation methods. The course also deals with the chemical and spectroscopic analysis techniques in SEM and TEM - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, can be used to obtain information about the chemistry of materials. 

A map showing the distribution of Carbon (blue), Zinc (green), and Calcium (red) in a Metal Organic Framework (MOF) as revealed with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS).

  • Material Analysis (10 ECTS) [Including SEM, TEM, Spectroscopy, and others]. Master’s level. Uppsala University course code 1TE013. 

Imaging, description and measurement of surfaces: methods included are e.g. light optical microscopy (LOM), SEM, scanning probe microscopy (SPM, STM and AFM), optical method for surface profiling (interference microscopy) and mechanical scanning probes. Chemical analysis of surfaces and depth profiles: methods included are e.g. X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, XRF), electron spectroscopy and diffraction (ESCA/XPS, Auger, EBSD), ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), ion beam spectroscopy (RBS and ERDA), optical spectroscopy (GD-OES) and vibration spectroscopy (Raman and IR). Introduction to TEM for analysis of a materials internal structure, including description of sample preparation and analysis using EDS. FIB for imaging, analysis and sample preparation.

Sub-volumes of Si network structure (a), 3C-SiC nanoparticles (b) and the a-SiC interface (c) embedded in an annealed Si rich SiC film (d) as revealed by spectroscopic tomography technique.

Advanced Courses‚Äč

The course covers the topics:

  1. Theoretical aspects elastic and inelastic electron scattering. This lecture will discuss the basic theoretical aspects behind scattering of fast electrons on samples.
  2. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM).This lecture will discuss the electron optics and image formation in scanning transmission electron microscope and their differences to the conventional one, for instant their reciprocal natures. 
  3. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This lecture introduces the basic principles of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and its current developments, followed by a discussion on spatial resolution, accuracy and sensitivity.
  4. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). This lecture will present the background of the main aspects of EELS spectroscopy as well as their experimental realization and evaluation of spectra.
  5. Theoretical aspects of EELS. This lecture will delve deeper into the theoretical aspects of electron energy loss spectroscopy, with particular attention to core level spectroscopy.
  6. Tomography in reciprocal space. This lecture will introduce the concept of electron diffraction tomography. The lecture will cover basic concepts of the method, including data acquisition and data treatment.
  7. Tomography in real space. This lecture includes: Introduction to electron tomography; conditions needed before the tilt-series acquisition on materials science samples; Tilt-series acquisition, Introduction to different methods to align the tilt-series; Tomographic reconstruction methods; Post-processing, single particle analysis and sub-volumes averaging; Segmentation and Most recent applications of electron tomography in materials science.
  8. Time-resolved spectroscopy. This lecture will present the concept of pump-probe spectroscopy in general and specifically applied to time resolved EELS.
  9. Labs. The labs will consist of a project work to be developed during 4-5 sessions (each session = 4 h) that will be supervised by one of the lecturers. The sessions include time at the microscope and data processing/analysis. Each project will be related to some of the lecture topics.

The course covers the topic of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) used for quantitative structural studies, especially at the atomic level (electron crystallography). It includes determination of unit cell size, plane and space groups using different diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. In addition, the course covers the use of quantitative structural models directly from electron diffraction and from the images. The course also includes dynamic diffraction theory (block wave, dispersion surface, Kikuchi lines) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), which can be used for studying defect structures such as dislocations and nanomaterials. The course also deals with how the spectroscopic analysis technique ("electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS") can be used to obtain structural information at atomic level and the chemical composition of different types of materials and nanoparticles. The course also includes practical exercises on electron microscopes and use of software for interpretation and quantification of images and problem solving.

  • Advanced Material Analysis (5 ECTS) [Including SEM, HRTEM, Electron Diffraction, and Spectroscopy]. Second cycle. Uppsala University course code 1TE074.

Course presented in Swedish
Fördjupning i mikroskopiska och spektroskopiska tekniker för materialanalys. Diffraktionstekniker. Röntgen- och elektronspektroskopiska tekniker, avbildande metoder som högupplösande transmissionselektronmikroskopi, och elektrondiffraktion. Studenterna genomför ett mindre projekt i materialanalys med utvärdering av resultat och uppföljning.

In this course, we will teach the methodology that is needed to use electron microscopes and focused ion beams for characterization of materials and to make an active contribution to the development of modern materials. The course contains the following parts: 1) Electron microscopy techniques, their basis and electron-sample interaction. 2) We will illustrate the use of electron microscopy with the corresponding applications in materials science, physics, chemistry and biology. 3) The focused ion beam device is presented with its capacity sputter samples with a nanometer precision as well as to use it for a local TEM sample lift-out. 4) The students will be confronted to selected problems/techniques in the laboratory course sessions in the state of the art Analytical Laboratory. The course will be evaluated by assignments that are related to course contents as well as by a final oral exam. We build a special tutorial program to improve the student-centered learning and group work.

Specialised Courses

Course presented in Swedish
Kursen ger en orientering och översikt över de möjligheter som modern elektronmikroskopi erbjuder materialforskaren för att karakterisera mikro- och nanostrukturen hos avancerade metalliska material.